Chapter 09: Solutions

Notes of Chapter 09: Solutions of “Chemistry XI” for FSc Part 1 published by Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. These notes are very helpful to prepare Chemistry paper of FSc Part 1 for Federal Board, Multan Board, Faisalabad Board, Sargodha Board, Gujranwala Board, DG Khan Board, Rawalpindi Board or any other board of Punjab, Pakistan.

Summary & Contents:

Every sample of matter with uniform properties and a fixed composition is called a phase e.g. water at room temperature and normal pressure exists as a single liquid phase, that is, all the properties of water are uniform throughout the liquid phase …

  • Concept of a solution
  • Concentration units of solutions
  • Percentage composition
  • Molarity(M)
  • Molality(m)
  • Mole fraction(x)
  • Parts per million(ppm)
  • Interconversion of various concentration units of solutions
  • Types of solutions
  • Solutions of solids in Liquids
  • Solutions of liquids in liquids
  • Ideal and non-ideal solutions
  • Raoult's law
  • Vapour pressure of liquid liquid solutions
  • Ideal solutions
  • Non-ideal solutions
  • Solubility and solubility curves
  • Fractional crystallization
  • Colligative properties of solutions
  • Energetics of solutions
  • Hydration energy of ions
  • Hydration and hydrolysis

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