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Chapter 08: Chemical Equilibrium

Notes of Chapter 08: Chemical Equilibrium of “Chemistry XI” for FSc Part 1 published by Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. These notes are very helpful to prepare Chemistry paper of FSc Part 1 for Federal Board, Multan Board, Faisalabad Board, Sargodha Board, Gujranwala Board, DG Khan Board, Rawalpindi Board or any other board of Punjab, Pakistan.

Summary & Contents:

A chemical reaction k takes place in both directions,i.e. foreard and reverse, but in some cases the tendency of reverse reactions is very small and is negligible …

  • Reversible and irreversible reactions
  • State of chemical equilibrium
  • Law of mass action
  • Equilibrium constant expressions for some important reactions
  • Relationship between equilibrium constants
  • Applications of equilibrium constant
  • The Le-Chatelier's principle
  • Applications of chemical equilibrium in industry
  • Synthesis of Ammonia by Haber's process
  • Preparation of sulphur trioxide
  • Ionic product of water
  • Ionization constants of acids
  • Ionization constants of basis
  • Lowry Bronsted acid and base concept
  • Common ion effect
  • Buffer solutionsBuffer capacity
  • Equilibria of slightly soluble ionic compounds
  • Applications of solubility product

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