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Notes (Mr. Taufiq)

Notes of “Chemistry XI” for FSc Part 1 published by Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. These notes are very helpful to prepare Chemistry paper of FSc Part 1 for Federal Board, Multan Board, Faisalabad Board, Sargodha Board, Gujranwala Board, DG Khan Board, Rawalpindi Board or any other board of Punjab, Pakistan.

Chapter 01: Basic Concepts
Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. read more & download

Chapter 02: Experimental techniques in chemistry
Analytical chemistry is the science of chemical characterization. A complete chemical characterization of a compound must include both quantative and qualitatie analysis … read more & download

Chapter 03: Gases
Matter exists in four states i.e. solid, liquid, gas and plasma. The simplest form of matter is the gaseous state and most of the matter around us is in the solid state … read more & download

Chapter 04: Liquids and Solids
The existance of matter in our surrounding in the form of gases, liquids and solids is due to the difference of interacting forces among the constituent particles … read more & download

Chapter 05: Atomic structure
we are familiar with the nature of matter, which is made up of extremly small particles called atoms. According to Dalton's theory, atoms were considered to b the ultimate particles which could not be divided any furthur … read more & download

Chapter 06: Chemical Bonding
A chemical bond is the force which hold together two or more atoms or ions to form a large variety of compounds. The forces which are resposible for such bonding and the shape of the molecules formed are as a result of chemical combination … read more & download

Chapter 07: Thermochemistry
It is matter of common observation that energy in the form of heat, either evolved or absorbed as a result of chemical change. This is mostly due to the breaking of bonds in reactions and formation of new bonds in the product … read more & download

Chapter 08: Chemical Equilibrium
A chemical reaction k takes place in both directions,i.e. foreard and reverse, but in some cases the tendency of reverse reactions is very small and is negligible … read more & download

Chapter 09: Solutions
Every sample of matter with uniform properties and a fixed composition is called a phase e.g. water at room temperature and normal pressure exists as a single liquid phase, that is, all the properties of water are uniform throughout the liquid phase … read more & download

Chapter 10: Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry is concerned with the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy in electrolytic cells as well as the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy … read more & download

Chapter 11: Reaction Kinetics
It is a common observation that rate of chemical reactions differ greatly. Many reactions, in aqueous solutions, are so rapid that they seem to occur instantaneously … read more & download

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